Tallest Pride of the Capital – Tashkent television tower turns 25

The largest broadcasting center in Central Asia has turned 25. It represents an integrated, debugged and operating round-the-clock technological system. The state-of-the-art industrial, switching and telecommunication equipment from leading enterprises of the world, more than hundred highly qualified specialists provide transmission of television and radio broadcasting.
It is visible from almost any point in the city. The tower’s height is 375 meters, and 6 thousand tons in weight. ‘The Tashkent Beauty’ is 75 meters higher, but 3 thousand tons lighter than the Eiffel Tower in Paris. It is especially obvious when their silhouettes are compared: the Tashkent tower looks as if it soars on three cone-shaped struts. Besides dimensions, Tashkent television tower is auspiciously distinct with its unique architectural, engineering and art decisions. Its well-composed dodecahedral trunk crowned with an aerial is promptly directed to the sky high.
Design of external belts of the tower forms a picture of original large-scale panjara (grating) that gives a national color to the whole construction. This sophisticated engineering construction was erected in a record time – eight years, and was commissioned in 1985. At the time, Tashkent television tower became a member of the World Federation of Great Towers, yielding only to similar constructions in Toronto, Moscow, New York and Tokyo.
Aerials mounted at the top of the television tower are aimed at for round-the-clock transmission of powerful signals of radio and five programs of telecasting over the whole republic and even he neighboring regions. The tower accepts some dozens of programs of air-cable television and provides with technical support of the international satellite digital communication of high quality. Besides, the tower has meteorological measuring equipment.
The tower especially impresses at a short distance. In two levels – 100 meters and 220 meters – a tower trunk is girded with many-storeyed (five floors each) premises – business, technical, meteorological ones and restaurant; from here, the celestial height, the picturesque panorama of the city opens.
From the height of 223,5 to 375 meters there is the antenna part of the tower consisting of pipes of variable diameter from 4 to 0,72 meters getting crowned with a flagpole.
Tashkent television tower – the highest construction in Central Asia – was organically entered the panorama of the city and deserved by right the role of its symbol. And red lights on the aerial of the television tower specify a right way to planes in the night sky. And it is also symbolic for the tower to be a beacon by calling.


Uzbek Land Boasts Inventors. The country produced discoveries of global significance.

The caravans going to distant countries from Bukhoro, Samarqand, Termiz and other ancient towns of Central Asia, carried not only silk, jewels, and other goods, but also, as we would say today, produces of intellectual property.

Intensive exchange with scientific and technological information was carried out on the Great Silk Road. The appreciable contribution to it is made by representatives of the Central Asian Mesopotamia – Movaraunnahr encompassing the land between and the two great rivers Amudaryo and Sirdaryo. From time immemorial the territory was renowned with its scientists and national masters, unknown authors of many inventions which spread all over the world from our region.
The Samarqand method of paper manufacturing is among these inventions. Unlike the Chinese technology using fibers of mulberry tree and bamboo pounded in mortar for paper manufacturing, Samarqand residents arranged in the 8th century the production of paper from cotton and cloth, and have applied to pounding in a mill. Since then, it is accepted for pundits to say that the paper is born in a mill, and the production of the unique material has ceased to depend on the place of growth of raw materials.
The Samarqand paper did not concede to the Chinese on the quality and successfully competed with it in the world market during thousand years. The secret of manufacturing the Samarqand paper reached Europe only in the 12th century, and thereupon, spread across the globe.
In the Middle Ages, contemporaries called the Samarqand paper as world-known. This paper has preserved for us, descendants, books by such outstanding compatriots as Abu Rayhon Beruniy, Ibn Sino, Alisher Navoiy, Al-Horazmiy, Al-Farghoniy and other prominent thinkers of the East. The humanity owes the paper, namely the Samarqand one, for the preservation of many masterpieces of literature, knowledge on history and development of scientific thought. It is quite not accidental that the founding father of Uzbek literature Alisher Navoiy compared paper with wings on which thoughts of wise men were spread widely abroad.
One more invention in our region, mills, facilitated the world-wide spread of paper. This concerns the wind turbine. Its creation dates back to early 7th century. These installations using, as we would say today, clean energy, were set up on special supports or towers of palaces and tops of hills. Mills consisted of the top compartment where millstones were placed, and the bottom with a rotor or the wind turbine. It represented a vertical shaft with six, eight or twelve blades made of cloth. To regulate the speed of rotation of millstones local masters invented necessary devices. They represented hatches which could be opened and closed, thus changing the force of a stream of air. Without such devices the grain grinding could not go normally.
Wind turbine was also used for activating paper mills and water-drawing wheels on watering irrigated soils.
The windmill with vertically located shaft spread from Central Asia to the Arab world. This design was highly estimated in India and China. In Europe, till the 11th century people made flour in hand mills, later – in water mills and only from late 12th century in wind mills. But the latter, unlike Eastern constructions, had the shaft of the main mechanism settled down horizontally. Historians of engineering cannot explain why in this case Europeans had not followed the inventors of the East. However, the progressive idea of ancient engineers of our region was highly appraised by their western colleagues only in the 20th century, when entire wind-power stations started to be built on such a principle.
Historians of natural sciences link the emergence of rudiments of knowledge of the modern science with mill distribution.
To the most important events in the history of mankind along with opening of features of a wheel and fire taming is ranked the invention of a bow, the most effective weapon in the hands of hunter and warrior for thousands of years.
Almost all people used bows, yet its most perfect design – compound – was created by ancient masters of Central Asia five thousand years ago. The Asian bows, unlike large European ones, are portable and rather convenient for arming of cavalrymen. The use of horses also urged on creation of a more perfect weapon. The preference was given to short bows with increased force of a bowstring tension. It was achieved by changing the traditional form of the weapon and using stronger materials than tree for its manufacturing. Bow’s arc started to be made of wooden core, to outer side of which having a major pressure from a stretching were pasted tendons of animals, and to internal side exposed to the strongest compression, the horn plates. In the 20th century such combination of materials providing high durability was called composite, and the materials as composites. Modern constructors give more preference to them. The intuition had helped masters of antiquity to feel subtly the ‘work’ in a design of the material they used and to demonstrate genuine inventiveness that amazed modern engineers. The combination of a tension’s big length and short shoulders allowed shoot an arrow from a compound bow with top speed and to a long distance, than from simple wooden bow. Amazing intuition was also demonstrated at creation of arrows. Tests of such ancient items conducted by scientists have shown high aerodynamic qualities of arrows.
These days, shooting from a bow is a type of competition in Olympic Games. Uzbekistanis can be proud of that the sources of many constructive decisions of one of the most elegant sports types of arm originated from compound bow.


At the Forefront of Zoology

The animal kingdom of Uzbekistan continues surprising its explorers with its wealth and diversity. Zoologists of the country dedicated a scientific conference to preservation of the unique animal kingdom of Uzbekistan and protection of the national economy from harmful types of insects. Another proof of this fact was displayed in the Tashkent conference Urgent Problems of Zoological Science. The majority of discoveries are made in the realm of insects, the least explored area. About 17 thousand species of insects are discovered in the territory of the republic. These findings reveal unknown aspects of life in previously studied insects. This is especially important in terms of searching for the new ways of struggle against species harmful for people.
Termites are referred to as species dangerous for national economy in Uzbekistan. They started their reproduction in the territory of the country over the last decades, especially in the Aral Sea area.
Having strong and firm jaws termites are able to gnaw through not only wood but also many inedible things for them: synthetic films and fabrics, imitation leather, fibrolite and arbalite plates, aluminum foil, glass fiber cloths, gypsum, lead and even copper wires. Having settled by human’s side, these insects are able to turn dwelling, telegraph poles, railway sleepers and even historic monuments into their nests.
The artificial termitary was built at the Zoology Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan under the guidance of Professor Oloviddin Khamraev to study the secret life of these insects. Monitoring insects in this unique structure and in natural conditions enabled scientists to lifting the veil of mystery covering many sides of termites’ concealed life.
They ascertained as follows: termites leave the old nest to build the new one only after the rain when the soil is softer and most suitable for building their new subterranean dwelling. They also managed to learn the season when termites cumulate food reserves. Basing on this information it is possible to project the best time for using poisoned baits against these parasites. Scientists found out that fast-acting baits do not reach the empress’s premises, and therefore, they should use the slow-acting poisons for annihilation of objectionable neighbors.
The concealed way of termites’ life complicates the struggle against them. The trans-Caspian termites, one of the local types of these insects, inhabit nests almost invisibly from the outside going 12 meters deep into the soil. These creatures destroy wood structures in the same invisible way. The dwelling inhabited by termites requires overhauling in five years and it is destroyed completely in 10 years.
To combat termites the Tashkent scientists have tested and currently use not only the chemically based poisoned baits but also the combined ones containing pathogenic fungi and bacteria. They conduct experiments on using termites’ natural enemies against them, particularly nematode worms, or round worms. Biological methods work slowly and they are safe for the environment since they affect only termites and have almost no impact on the other types of insects.
Uzbek zoologists conduct research works in collaboration with their colleagues from the US, France, China and Japan.


Theater of Miracles Creating traditional Uzbek dolls

For many centuries vagrant puppeteers used to act in noisy bazaars and populous squares in the territory of modern-day Uzbekistan, pleasing adults and children with their plain performances. During national festivities or major holidays this type of folk theater was one of the brightest and favorite entertainments. The touching nature and major advantage of it is that people see how a lifeless doll cries and laughs, revives in the hands of an authentic master.

The national puppet is a unique image that helps to learn rich culture and ancient traditions of the Uzbek people. Their production concerns one of crafts of the folk art having centuries-old history. Puppet masters aspired to enclose their souls in puppets and tried to depict a certain character in them. For this purpose did they use rather various natural materials: tree, clay, straw, wool, leather, while costumes of national style were sewed from homespun rags. In the 19th century in Tashkent and Farg’ona Valley there were the puppets whose heads were made from a painted papier-mache, or porcelain. Manufacturing was considered the most responsible process, it was organized under the guidance of a chief puppet master. But only the talent of national actor could revive those motionless dolls, made them think and feel. He performed a genuine miracle, demonstrating by means of dolls, the diversity of human life, his customs and habits.
The Uzbek national puppeteers acted in two basic genres: theater of manual dolls “chodir jamol” and theater of puppets “chodir hayol”. Actors of chodir jamol organized performances using glove dolls put on hand. It was the simplest and clearest type of folk theater. The shows were organized during daytime in streets and were available for any idlers. Plots for performances were plain and picked up from everyday life, and in the limelight of all comedies there was a dark-complexioned cheerful hero, a man of the people, a fighter for truth and justice. His wife, the young beautiful woman with cheerful nature was the second basic character. No more than twenty puppets were used at theater of manual dolls, one actor could reproduce voices of man and woman, old man and child. Flashing humor and traditions of the “square” theater having passed through centuries, even today please the modern spectator.
The name of traditional Uzbek puppet theater chodir hayol is translated as a tent of dreams, fantasies. It received such name because these performances contained mythological plots or scenes from national eposes. Puppets moved by means of threads or appeared from under a scene on poles. Shows were organized mostly in the evening and were accompanied by simple light and noise effects. All it charmed spectators and created an illusion that dolls moved by themselves. Chodir hayol performances were much more difficult and rather diverse than a theater with glove dolls. Along with the invented and symbolic heroes, a puppet theater had existing historical characters. Distinctive feature and tradition of chodir hayol was that puppets were of different sizes. Over forty puppets could be used during one performance that lasted three or four hours, long and difficult performance with such quantity of characters was executed by three actors only. One of them sat not far from the scene and led a dialog with heroes; he also sang or played in national musical instruments: doira, surnay, and others. Over the whole performance actors could simultaneously run with 8-10 puppets, demonstrating unprecedented virtuosity and the high proficiency in art of the puppet theater.
To set an exact time of emergence of folk puppet theater is barely possible. Yet as early as the 8th-9th century the Central Asian puppeteers legalized their art in the craft charter Risola which went: “The doll appears, plays for a while and disappears like the human who is born, lives in this world for a while and then passes away.” Outstanding enlighteners of the Medieval East, such as Alisher Navoiy, Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur, Umar Hayyom, described puppet shows as the most instructive, developed and favorite art among the commons and the nobility. The national puppet theater has at all times been and remains the genuine theater of miracles performances which make people empathize, suffer and rejoice together with puppets revived in the hands of actor.


Beauty Legend – Bukhoro carpets have been called so from old times

The Museum of Applied Art of Uzbekistan in Tashkent hosts an exhibition “Bukhoro Carpet: A Beauty Legend», presenting a rich and extensive collection of unique handmade carpets weaved for the last one and a half centuries in Bukhoro region.
“The renowned brand of Bukhoro Carpet has developed for centuries, since the days when Great Silk Road merchants delivered masterpieces of carpet weaving to the East and West, and Mediterranean countries,” according to the director of Uzbekistan’s Museum of Applied Art, art critic Nargiz Tolipova. “They amazed people with the shine of velvety pile and tints of red color, from scarlet and dark garnet to light red brick.”
It is difficult to imagine these days a house without carpet with which floors are covered and walls are decorated. After all, people say not without reason: “Carpet heats the owner’s soul and pleases the eyes». And these features are inherent only in products weaved by skilful hands of female carpet masters. Although, an inexperienced viewer can hardly distinguish a handmade carpet from a factory-made one.
Carpet weaving in Uzbekistan is known from times immemorial, types and ornaments of carpets are rather vary as they do anywhere in the world. Connoisseurs determine carpets right away by their patterns and colors, whether it is made in Khiva or Samarqand, Qashqadaryo or Surkhondaryo. However, it was largely Bukhoro carpets that brought glory to Uzbek carpets. In Bukhoro, carpets used to be weaved all the time. Marco Polo, who visited our lands in the thirteenth century, gave a high appraisal of the quality of local products. “Know that thinnest and most beautiful carpets in the world are produced here,” he remarked.
In two centuries, ambassador of the king of Castile at Amir Temur’s court Rui Gonzales de Claviho colorfully described “bright red carpets” which he had seen in Samarqand palaces, gardens and marquees of Movarounnahr‘s sovereign. One can encounter them in medieval Uzbek miniatures and works of European artists.
Bukhoro silk carpets used to be appreciated in particular. During the last couple of centuries they were woven in palace workshops, they decorated the halls of governors and the nobility, they used to be given to high foreign visitors as precious gifts, and they cost quite high. Especially, silk and other fabrics like “zandanachi” manufactured in suburb settlement Zandana acquired fame from the early Middle Ages. Later on, their production fell into decay, and at the beginning of the 20th century was on the verge of disappearance. Only from the coming of independence to Uzbekistan has the technology of ancient carpet weaving including silk been restored.
For manufacturing of yarn for a Bukhoro carpet the best spring wool used to be selected of sheep pastured in plains, only its longest and thinnest fibers. In old days the Bukhoro people believed that sheep wool as well as carpets woven from them is good in treating illness. By tradition, female carpet weavers of Bukhoro paint yarn with natural dyes. Red color of different tints is made from the root of moraine. With decoctions of bark of oak, walnut and pomegranate they paint yarn in brown, black, olive and yellow colors.
Numberous legends are composed about ornaments of Bukhoro carpets. Motives of stylized solar signs, amulets and horns of wild sheep have magic meanings and are expected to protect the owner of carpet against trouble and to bring good luck and well-being to the house.
The current exposition organized with the initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Sports of Uzbekistan and the Academy of Arts includes around 80 carpets. Bukhoro handmade carpets are highly appreciated by connoisseurs and collectors all over the world, and the exhibition “Bukhoro Carpet: A Beauty Legend” taking place at the Museum of Applied Art in Tashkent gives an opportunity to familiarize with the ancient art of Bukhoro carpet weavers.


The Well that Connects Generations – A new excursion to the history of Great Silk Road

Stories about water springs entered our life from times long ago since those springs were treated specially at all times in the East.
Long caravan journeys fatigued wayfarers whose principal salvation was water. Hence the sacred rule of the desert: preserve subterranean springs. A sardoba dome looked as the heaven for the emaciated traveler – it contained long-awaited water, a recreation in carvonsaroy.
An ancient well has remained in its initial appearance at Qaynar village in Ohangaron district, Tashkent region. It was included in the list of ancient monuments under the protection of the state. This sardoba is supposed to have existed here as far back as the 19th century. The remains of walls and foundation of a carvonsaroy and a mosque situated close to the well, right on the Great Silk Road, are preserved here in Qaynar.
The name of the village originated from the spring spouting from the ground. The sardoba Qaynar (Boiling) was erected on the spring. Hospitable people lived there who gladly hosted wayfarers and treated them with delicious spring water. That water was unique, indeed. It possessed healing properties because it comes through the richest of natural deposits and is enriched with the strength of gold, silver, iron ores.
The travelers tired of adversities of the road were glad to have an opportunity to taste a drink of some magic water and rest in carvonsaroy. The sardoba and carvonsaroy, locating on one of the branches of the Great Silk Road, created a unique atmosphere of rest in that area. The boisterous trade of different goods took place there and rare medicines, overseas spices and ancient recipes were sold. Besides, music and verses sounded there and rare books were demonstrated.
Nowadays, powerful walls and the still spouting spring remind me of the power of the spring and past greatness of Qaynar sardoba and shares with its freshness.

http://www.ut.uzThe Sound of Surnay – means joy is knocking on the door

“…Enmity and abuse keep silent,” with reverence say Uzbek musicians who play the surnay, one of the oldest wind instruments.

Music of the Uzbek nation has travelled the centuries-long path of historical development, and people have enjoyed the sounds of many national instruments for hundreds of years. One of such instruments is the surnay – tuneful, inimitable in its sounding that makes people feel both tender and rejoice. According to a legend, the very music of surnay implanted a soul in a human. Ancient physicians and academics believed the sounds of surnay healed sick people. Not a single feast or national holiday was organized without melodies of the surnay. Images of the instrument are first encountered in miniatures of Boburnoma dating back to the 16th century. Some researchers in our times adhere to the opinion that European wind instruments owe their roots precisely to the eastern surnay.
Surnay comprises two words: sur – to wind and nay – melody. Brought to perfection by many generations of musicians, this wonderful instrument has been widely spread in the East. The surnay is sharpened from a unitary block of hard wood, such as walnut, apricot or mulberry. Superbly cut frame with a broad bell has seven playing holes and a refined cone of silver or copper to serve for winding sounds. The art of playing in the surnay has an old history and is considered the national musical property of the Uzbeks. Not everybody could grasp this art, as the surnay is a quite complex instrument to be mastered. Playing it requires good musical training, professional virtuosity and strength. While winding, a musician should simultaneously take in a breath, and thanks to it the melody sounds uninterruptedly. In order to wind a clean sounding a musician should have strong lungs and should perform special exercises nearly every day.
Melodies for this wind instrument are not usually set in notes; they are played by the ear or transferred by mouth. Thus, every gifted musician with their special talents and uniqueness of performance made their own contribution to the preservation of old and creation of new melodies.
In old times professional musicians, like traders, were united into special workshops Risola and had to abide by its principles. In order to acquire an honoured title of surnaychi, master player, young musicians had to be trained by a renowned master for at least ten years. The apprentice had to grasp irreproachably tens of complicated works to be examined then by honourable gurus. For learning all secrets and refinements of the art passing on from generation to generation, from instructor to apprentice, not only talent but also tremendous patience and hard work were required.
As it was the case long times ago, not a single feast in the life of Uzbeks these days goes without sounds of surnay. In ensemble with karnay, another wind instrument of Uzbeks, surnay calls people in to a morning palov, dedicated to various family occasions. Together with doira, an Uzbek national shock-membrane instrument, surnay accompanies the bride and groom to the wedding table. During street festivities timed to civic and national holidays, popular Uzbek dances are performed to the music of surnay in the bosom of friends.
Venerable musicians and young talents of Uzbekistan performing on national and world stages carry on the ancient national art in order to preserve it for future generations. Sometimes mysterious and profound, sometimes dynamic and sparkling melodies of surnay sound time and time again, charming and inducing people to recall the past and dream for the future.

11.12.2009“Somsamisan Somsa!” from cooking wonders of Uzbek national cuisine

The playful advertising slogan above means “This you can unhesitatingly call somsa” (a piece of baked puff pastry with various stuffing, normally meat). Any person who savors the just-from-the-tandoor (clay oven) pastry will affirm for sure that Uzbek somsa has such an inimitable taste and smell.
Uzbeks are famed for their genuine eastern hospitality and warm welcome of every guest who happens to visit their home. It has been a great pleasure for Uzbeks to treat guests with various cooked creatures with which the centuries-old national cuisine is rich. A cup of tea, hot flat cake and home-made somsa are considered the irreplaceable items at any Uzbek table. This pastry is assigned a special place in Uzbeks’ menu. One of the most widespread dishes, it is baked and sold everywhere around. One can taste it in small teahouses located in isolated settlements as well as in urban restaurants. It can be served both as a hot snack and a substantial dinner. There is a great variety of recipes for baking this pastry, yet cooking somsa in an uplifted mood is the crucial principle of each experienced cook!
From flour, water and salt, stiff unleavened dough is made which should be rolled out quite thin. Then it is smeared, rolled and cut across into pieces. The pieces are rolled into small flat cakes which are filled with a stuffing. There is a good variety of stuffing and shapes of somsa. Traditionally, the pastry is filled with meat stuffing (basically, mutton) lavishly flavored with caraway and black pepper.
Chopped meat is mixed with chopped onion, and some bits of lamb fat are put into each rolled dough pieces. Such stuffing makes the pastry quite juicy and spicy, the dough becomes crispy and at the same time melting in the mouth. Edges of each flat cake are wetted and pinched together shaping them into various forms: triangular, round, square, and oval with figured sutures in the middle. Somsa’s form is a matter of taste, the point is not to let the juice flow out. Top of somsa is oiled and sprinkled with sesame seeds. Uzbek cuisine has been quite diverse, thus somsa’s stuffing can vary with season and tastes of people. Pastries filled with potato and pumpkin are popular in late fall. People enjoy pastries with fresh greenery in early spring in order to nourish the body with vitamins. However, the cooking art can not exist in isolation, cuisines of peoples and countries exert considerable cross influence. Therefore, the top product of Uzbek cooks is parmuda somsa, four little pastries put together and filled with different stuffing: one filled with mutton, another with chicken, a third with mushroom and a fourth with cheese. Various tastes and cooking features are combined in one dish.
Meanwhile, regional differences are reflected in cooking traditional meals in Uzbek cuisine, the recipes of which have passed a centuries-long path toward perfection. In particular, G’ijduvon somsa is utterly popular with pastry-lovers in the country. It is a two-in-one dish containing a soup with meat and vegetables. Rolled dough is filled with flavored boned mutton, chopped onion, tomatoes and stock. This dainty dish should be admired by any gourmet for sure. Traditionally, somsa is served with various seasonings: sour curds in Samarqand, light cream in Jizzakh, wine vinegar or a mix of chili pepper and garlic in other regions of the country.
Classical Uzbek somsa is baked in tandoor, a traditional wood-burning clay oven that adds inimitable taste and special smell to pastries. Toasted somsa filled with juicy stuffing and exhaling a lovely spicy fragrance develops a keen appetite, and it confirms the belief that the Uzbek cuisine is considered unmatched by getting its prosperity at this sunny land.


Labi Hovuz: Modern Gate to Old Bukhoro or the place for meetings and proms

Labi Hovuz is an architectural complex at the center of Bukhoro consisting of monuments from the 16th-17th centuries located across the artificial pond – Ko’kaldosh Madrasah and those constructions built by Nodir Devon Begi including honaki (little rooms), house for pilgrims and madrasah. Today, hospitable Bukhoro residents are fond of welcoming guests, feeding them and organizing excursions to historical monuments and other places of interest in the town.

For more than four centuries, owing to the convenient microclimate created by the pond and the centuries-old mulberry trees and weeping willows around, this square has become a proper place for meetings and proms. As it was many centuries ago, the place becomes brisker in evenings till late nights. Before, teahouses around the pond entertained local inhabitants, yet now one can meet lots of foreign tourists having rest here and sharing their impressions on their tours of the city with numerous architectural monuments.
Labi Hovuz is the first architectural construction one can face on their way from Bukhoro airport or railway terminal. And it was mainly the reason for such a great number of hotels with high-level service next to Labi Hovuz complex. By the way, hotels are quite different in their type. Those hotels adjacent to the complex are dwellings built around the yards like traditional Uzbek houses. Other hotels that are located not far from the complex, at the residential settlement, emerged as the result of reconstruction of old traditional houses of Bukharians. The other hotels are of modern style.
Labi Hovuz is a quite suitable and attractive place for travelers, because after a day of tours across the city and places of interest, they can come here to individually explore architectural monuments. Madrasah, honaki and a bazaar started their history in the Middle Ages are hugely popular with tourists. For instance, in decor of Nodir Devon Begi Madrasah, there are images of breathers. This, according to historians, was the first attempts of Central Asian architects to digress from traditional decor inherent in absence of images of breathers. Decoration has no red color as well, because it associates with the heat of ardent sun which is enough in Bukhoro. Such cool colors as blue and green prevailing in decor create the atmosphere of conciliation and comfort.
Workshops of artisans and souvenir stores located next to architectural monuments are of a great interest as well. Here one can closely get familiarized with special features of colorful national applied art and purchase souvenirs for relatives and friends.
Moreover, tourists having rest next to the pond prefer to take photos there. And if to collect all photos on Bukhoro, photos against the background of modern monument to the hero of Uzbek folklore Ho’ja Nasriddin will surely prevail. Second most popular photos are those of people standing against the backdrop of dried yet beautiful stem of centuries-old mulberry tree which is located on the left side of the pond.
Excursion of any tourist concludes with a cup of tea at one of the open-air cafes located across the pond under mulberry trees or weeping willows. Here one can get acquainted with Uzbek national cuisine by tasting meals of great variety.


Magic Spring of Omonhona
From the old days warmed with bright sun the southernmost region of Uzbekistan Surkhondaryo was famous with its diverse and peculiar flora and fauna. Here in the mountains and lowlands one can observe numerous water-springs some of which by their components and health-giving properties are considered as unique ones. One of such springs Omonhona, is located at the junction of ancient Boysuntog’ and spurs of Gissar Range.
About magic properties of the springs’ pure water was known many centuries ago. There are some several legends telling the origin of the name of the spring. Yet only one of the legends is close to truth that tells about a commander who passes through this place with his army. Tired of prolonged marches, many warriors began to die from an unknown disease. Yet halting near the spring, the commander noticed that most soldiers began to recover while those who were close to the spring recovered quite faster than others.
From that time the spring got its name Omonhona that means the place where people recover from any ailments. Examining the water from the spring, academics found that the healing water possesses rare chemical composition including potassium sulfates, sodium, calcium, magnesium, silicic acid, iron, aluminum, copper, selenium, zinc, molybdenum, and many other elements, microscopic doses of which combine in such a unique way that acquires the magic medicinal effect. It was also proved by data that has been received during several years by fellows of Semashko Scientific Research Institute on Rehabilitation and Therapy under the Ministry of Healthcare of Uzbekistan. Numerous practical observations of patients that were cured for their ailments owing to the water from Omonhona spring could serve as an evidence of that. Today, it should be noted that health-giving properties of the spring’s water cure people for gastrointestinal diseases, as well as diabetes and pancreatitis for sure.
In an endless stream of people come to the spring in order to recover from their diseases. Recently in accordance with the state program on developing Omonhona spa resort, works on constructing new complex with wider range of service have been started.


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