ClimberCA Mountaineering Consortium is an invention of outstanding climber Ilyas Tuhvatullin

ClimberCA unites together efforts of best tour operators

ClimberCA Mountaineering Consortium

The ClimberCA consortium is the organization, which unites together efforts of best tour operators, working in mountains in Nepal, China, India, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. Therefore we certainly can help you to accomplish any of your daring plans in Himalayas, Karakoram, Pamirs, Tien-Shan or Altai.

ClimberCA represents the most reliable tour operators, which offer activity holidays programs, being the fully licensed legal organizations in their countries.

ClimberCA offers to you the best service & the firm prices of all kind of services we offer on our web-pages.

ClimberCA is the consortium of local tour operators

ClimberCA is not travel agency and it is not a travel agent in relationship with the local operators. ClimberCA is the consortium of local tour operators instead. Thereby to the ClimbeCA consortium has been given the authority to represent the most reliable tour operators, which offer the activity holidays programs at the all most popular mountain systems of Asia: Karakoram, Himalayas (including Indian Himalayas), Pamirs, Tien-Shan and Altai. This is why WE CAN GUARANTEE YOU the firm prices of all kind of services, which in some areas are truly unexampled. Also ClimberCA is involved in recruiting of guides and porters for the local operators. Therefore, we can also ensure you that all of them are very professional and responsible.

We made the selection for you

There are many offers of the activity holidays in Internet; however which one’s the best? Who you can trust? We made the selection for you, and we represent the best only. ClimberCA offers to you the best service & the firm prices of all kind of services we offer on our web-pages. Some services, which we offer to you, are truly unexampled.

ClimberCA as the Consortium offers the activity holidays programs in mountains of Asia, while each one of ClimberCA’s valuable members may promote the same product! Therefore if you are negotiating with some local operator and with ClimberCA’s consultants at the same time, please make sure that this company is not the member of ClimbeCA, otherwise it may create a mess and misunderstanding.

ClimberCA International Consortium
e-mail: – On all matters – Consultant on all matters in Moscow

Telegram –
WhatsApp / Viber +7966 065-53-44

Leader of the Consortium – Walter Käfer Fremdenverkehr.
Walter Kaefer
Backsteinweg 6
67574 Osthofen

The little hero who conquered the Super Giant Slalom

Amir Gusev finshed the Super Giant Slalom in 1 minute 2,39 seconds. He improved his divisioning result by 13 seconds. (Photo: Bavo Delbaere)

Bavo Delbaere, AIPS Young Reporter, Belgium

SCHLADMING/RAMSAU, March 22, 2017 – Two skis make a horizontal turn, snow shoots inall directions. Time is stopped, and the cheering crowds reach a crescendo.They just witnessed a special performance. A member of the USA skiingdelegation quickly grabs a pen and jokingly writes down ‘Amir Gusev’ on their nationalcontestant list. He just saw the Uzbek 11-year old snatch away the gold medal inthe Advanced Super Giant Slalom Final.

Amir has quickly raced his way to fame in the Special Olympic corridors.A group of volunteers pat him on the shoulder and seize the opportunity to talkto him as he passes by. “We’ve heard you’re quite a talent. When will you beracing again? We want to make sure we’re there to watch!” They seem just ascaptivated as Bryan Tweit, an Alpine Skiing Coach from team USA who was on siteduring the race. “Suddenly a very young athlete shows up on top of themountain. He starts zigzagging down better and faster than all the olderopponents. It was not just some ordinary race, it was the final of the SuperGiant Slalom advanced division. That’s quite an achievement at such a youngage, my jaws literally dropped.”

Uzbekistan team coach Dmitriy Pitirimov stays cool under all the excitement. “It’s not about pride, I don’t like that feeling. I am grateful though. Pridegives you the feeling you are already there, gratefulness keep your feet on theground. I won’t deny that he did a great job of course! I checked the clocktwice just to be sure it really happened. It was incredible! But the next racecan be something wholely different, it does not end here, I want him to continue training hard.”

The talented youth grew up in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan: acountry that has everlasting snow, mountain peaks that reach 4500 metres andplenty of untouched nature. He has trouble with reading, writing and expressinghimself. His father died when he was still very young so with only his motherlooking out for him, it has not been an easy time for the small family. Amirspends most of his time in a school for disabled children.

In 2009, coach Dmitriy started cooperating with the school. The idea wasto take the disabled kids to go rock climbing. From there on his life took aradical twist. He got involved with the children a lot, one of which he adoptedas his own daughter. Two other young rock climbers turned into very successfulsportsmen. “They are now competing in the national team of Uzbekistan. I’m nottalking about the Special Olympics, but the regular national team!” Dmitriy pointsout.

The Uzbek coach started preparing for the Winter Games in Austria duringthe fall of 2016. He has 30 years of experience in Alpine skiing and time wasripe to pass on his knowledge. A new group of youngsters from the school wereselected, they started training from scratch. The first days they were justwalking and trying to find the balance on the skis. Step by step progress wasmade and slowly but surely their talent rose to the surface.

Coach Dmitriy soon realized one of them was very gifted: Amir. “He is 11years old so he doesn’t weigh as much as his opponents who are adults, hisfeatherweight is a disadvantage in skiing but Amir overthrows that with hisbravery.” The pupil knows what it takes to perform, he uses his excellentbalance as an asset. He might have learning difficulties but when it comes topractical things he adapts very fast.

According to Dmitriy, a coach must do more than just train his athletes.“You have to be a mentor, take responsibility and guide them through life.” Heis not the kind of person who will dictate life lessons to his disciples.According to him it’s all about setting good examples. Because when you letthem experience positive moments, they will eventually come out of their shell.

“Hospitality is anchored in the Uzbek way of life. In the summer orduring vacation I invite the athletes to my home. My family gives them food,care and love.  We spend time togetherhigh in the mountains and we ski till the sun goes down. He won a gold medal but I will trulyhave succeeded when he has a good job later and can participate in society likeeverybody else.”

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Gur Emir Mausoleum in Samarkand

The Gur-Emir-Mausoleum (Persian گور امیر; Uzbek Go’ri Amir, from gur, “grave”, and the Emir, “sovereign”, “ruler”) in the Uzbek city
Samarkand is the tomb of Tamerlane, some members of his family and other persons in the environment of the ruler, including
Ulugh BegShah Rukh and Mir Said Berke – the teacher of Tamerlane.

It was built in 1403/04 and is regarded as the finest example of art of building of the Timurid’s epoch, with its azure ribbed dome on a high Tambour.

It occupies an important place in the history of Persian-Mongolian Architecture as the precursor and model for later great Mughal architecture tombs, including Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi and
the Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Timur’s descendants, the ruling Mughal dynasty of North India.


Initial part of the complex was built at the end of the 14-th century to the orders of Muhammad Sultan Tamerlane’s heir apparent and his beloved grandson. The construction of mausoleum (Qubba) itself began in 1403 after the sudden death of Muhammad Sultan. The Mausoleum was completed before Timur’s death on 14-th February 1405, so it must be either end of 1404, or the beginning of 1405. His own resting place, Timur had prepared in his home city Schahr-i Sabs near to his Ak-Saray palace. However, when Timur died in 1405 on campaign on his military expedition to China, the passes to Shahrisabz were snowed in, so he was buried here instead. Later Ulugh Beg, another grandson of Tamerlane, had completed the complex in whole. Under the aegis of Ulugh Beg in 1434
Ivans and minarets was built. During his reign the mausoleum became the family crypt of the Timurid Dynasty.

Unfortunately, since the end of 17-th century the long period of decline of Samarkand has begun. The city has lost the status of capital which has been transferred to Bukhara. The great Silk Road bypassed the city, meanwhile great historical monuments stood empty and forgotten. Only after the Second World War extensive restoration work in Gur-Emir has begun. In the 1950s the dome, main portal and minarets were refurbished. By that time majolica tiles mostly fell away. The 1970s, was followed by the restoration of the interior. Neither the Madrasah nor the Khanaka of initial Muhammad Sultan’s complex were reconstructed. With the resurgence of the interest to Tamerlane after the founding of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 1991 it intensified the care of his places of worship.

In 1740, king Nader Shah of the Afsharid Empire tired to carry away Tamerlane’s sarcophagus. Nader idolized Timur. He imitated Timur’s military prowess and, later in his reign, Timur’s cruelty, but
in the process of removal the sarcophagus broke in two. This was interpreted as a bad omen. His advisers urged him to leave the stone to its rightful place. Tamerlane’s tomb was opened shortly before the German Invasion into the Soviet Union, although the inscription on his tomb threatens great misfortune to any of his rest breaker. Exhumation of Timur in 1941 was made under the direction of Soviet scientist and anthropologist Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gerasimov who was able to reconstruct Tamerlane’s facial features from his skull, and it was also confirmed that he was 172 cm in height and would have walked with a pronounced limp. Also it is rumoured that Soviet Union won a victory in the Battle of Stalingrad owing to the re-burial of Timur’s bones, according to Muslim rites in 1942.


All the extensions of Ulugh Beg’s time are attributed to the architect Muhammad ibn Mahmud from Isfahan. Through the main portal (Ivan) of 12,07 m height one can enter in courtyard. On the right on the courtyard once the Khanaka, and on the left the Madrasah were located. Now only remnants of the foundations of these former buildings exist.

The courtyard measures are 29.5 x 30.4 m. Across the courtyard contrariwise the main portal one can see the second Ivan with the Pischtak of 11.8 m high, which framed the real entrance into Mausoleum together with decorated arcade-walls that adjoined to the Pishtak from the left and the right.

At present time only two of four minarets rise a bit behind at flanks of the second Pishtak. The entrance portals of Gur-Emir Ensemble are richly decorated with carved bricks and various mosaics.

Outwardly the Mausoleum itself is a one-cupola building. It is famous for its simplicity of construction and for its solemn monumentality of appearance. It is an octahedral building crowned by an azure fluted dome. The exterior decoration of the walls consists of the blue, light-blue and white tiles organized into geometrical and epigraphic ornaments against a background of terracotta bricks. The dome (diameter – 15 m, height – 12.5 m ) is of a bright blue color with deep rosettes and white spots. Heavy ribbed fluting gives an amazing expressiveness to the cupola.

Inwardly the mausoleum appears as a large, high chamber with deep niches at the sides and diverse decoration. The interior of the mausoleum has a square plan enlarged with four niches that created a cross-shaped space. One can see that the internal dome is neither by the form nor by the height corresponds to the dome from outside. Reason for this is that between inner ceiling and outer cupola is the hollow space.

The interior is lavishly decorated. The lower part of the walls covered by onyx slabs composed as one panel. Each of these slabs is decorated with refined paintings. Above the panel there is a marble stalactite cornice. Large expanses of the walls are decorated with painted plaster; the arches and the internal dome are ornamented by high-relief papier-mache cartouches, gilded and painted.

The ornate carved headstones in the inner room of the mausoleum merely indicate the location of the actual tombs in a crypt directly underneath the main chamber.

Under Ulugh Beg’s government a solid block of dark green jade was placed over the grave of Tamerlane. Formerly this stone had been used at a place of worship in the Chinese emperor’s palace, then as the throne of Duwa (a descendant of Genghis Khan) in Chagatay Khanate. Next to Tamerlane’s grave lie the marble tombstones of his sons Miran Shah and Shah Rukh and also of grandsons – Muhammad Sultan and Ulugh Beg. Tamerlane’s spiritual teacher Mir Said Baraka, also rests here.

The way to the actual burial place, under the main chamber, passes not via the doorway-ivan, but is vented on one side of the gallery.

Nearby monuments

Some consider the Gur-e Amir (Gur Emir), Ruhabad mausoleum and Aksaray mausoleum as a combined ensemble because of their closeness.

Ruhabad (14th c.) is a small mausoleum and is said to contain a hair of Prophet Muhammad. The one storey madrasah now accommodates craftsmens’ shops. There is a functioning mosque next door to the madrasah. All three combine into one
good-looking shape.

The Aksaray mausoleum (15th c.), unrestored, located on a quiet street behind Gur-e Amir (Gur Emir).


The mosque Bibi Khanym (Persian: مسجد بیبی خانم; Uzbek: Bibixonim Masjidi; Russian: Мечеть Бибиханым; German: Bibi Khanum Moshee; also: … Khanom / Hanum/ Chanym / Hanim, etc.) is one of the most important monuments of Samarkand. In the 15th century it was one of the largest and most magnificent mosques in the Islamic world. By the mid-20th century only a grandiose ruin of it was survived, but now major parts of the mosque have been restored.

Origin and Meaning

Bibi Khanym Mosque was built between 1399 and 1404 by order of the Central Asian ruler
Timur (Tamerlane). Previously Timur had expanded his power in several successful campaigns from Syria to India and had risen to become the most powerful ruler of the Islamic world. The construction of the new Friday Mosque (Great Mosque) in Timurs’s capital Samarkand is probable the claim to put the sign of his power in political and religious life of vast region of Asia.

Though Timur personally monitored and corrected the construction of the building, it was not quite completed until his death in 1405.

Soon after the building became a huge place of worship, it began to collapse and fall into ruin. The original impulse of its creator was perhaps too impertinent, as he attempted to accomplish what was at the time an almost unreal architectural idea. But perhaps there was a more deep reason of its collapse. It is commonly known that rulers often build temples in an attempt to please God. The Bibi-Khanym might have been intended as a huge thank-offering by the Emperor Timur after his successful Indian campaign. Or was it perhaps built in atonement for his many sins? The capture of Delhi was remarkable for its excessive cruelty. When Tamerlane over-ran India, he left a trail of carnage all the way to Delhi, where he reduced the city to rubble and massacred 100,000 inhabitants. The truth will always remain a mystery. At least it looks as if God rejected the bloody offering, whatever kind it was.

To the true story of origin of the mosque was later implicated a romantic legend in which Bibi Khanym, the favorite wife of Timur, is presented as a builder of.



The mosque follows the basic type of the courtyard mosque. Its outer walls enclose a rectangular area which measures 167 by 109 m and runs along roughly from northeast to southwest – the
Qibla accordingly. However the size of the site vacant of covered galleries was only 78 by 64 meters.

One who enters the Mosque from the northeast through the vast, about 40 m high, parade portal gets in the courtyard. A monumental dome above square base, around 40 m high, rises on the opposite site of the courtyard. The dome is the largest cupola of the mosque. Nevertheless, the dome cannot be seen from the courtyard, for whole building is covered up from inside by the grandiose pischtak, which framed a monumental, deeply embedded Iwan. The Iwan does not allow getting inside the underlying construction supporting the dome; this can only be done from the sides. Two other domes associated with the Iwans, more modest in their size, are facing at the center of the long sides of the courtyard. Thereby, the Bibi Khonym Mosque implements the classic Persian-Islamic architectural type of the “Four-Iwan scheme”.

Into the perimeter of the courtyard in former time there were open galleries of 7.2 m high. Their cover was formed from the juxtaposition of many small, flat brick vaults and domes supported by a forest of more than 400 marble columns and buttresses. Today, only hints of the galleries can be seen.

Four minarets at their outer corners of the site are already restored. Four other, more majestic minarets that flanked the Portal arch of the entrance and the Pischtak of the main domed building are not completed yet.

In the middle of the courtyard is located the stone pedestal – the huge Quran stand from ornate marble blocks, this remarkable sight is also from the time of Timur..

The huge BIbi Khonym Mosque with its three domed rooms, the covered galleries and the open courtyard was intended to gather the entire male population of Samarkand city for the joint Friday prayers.

Artistic design

In the construction of three domes of Bibi-Khanym mosque, sophisticated in Timur’s time, one important innovation was applied, it is Two-fold construction, where the internal dome hall neither by the form nor by height corresponds to the dome’s shape from outside. Reason for this is that between inner ceiling and outer cupola is the hollow space. This dome construction allowed main hall of the mosque to be committed to the proportions and the aesthetics of the 30 m high interior above the mihrab, meanwhile 40 m high outer dome of the main building could be designed towards maximal impression and visibility. This scheme was applied also to the lateral dome structures that allowed making modest buildings the figuration tower-like structures with elegant melon-shaped and longitudinally ribbed outer domes. When construction was completed in 1404 it gripped minds of many poets. The Bibi-Khanym was compared to the beauty and brilliance of the Milky Way. Unfortunately the beauty of interior in Bibi-Khonym mosque is almost completely lost, however one can get an idea of how it might
look like by visiting the Gur-Emir mausoleum, where was used same technique.

In the decoration of the Bibi-Khinym Mosque all the traditions of Central Asia and Persia and even architectural ideas from India were used. One can see there elements of mural incrustation, decorative marble panels, stucco decorations and mural painting. Especially glazed ceramics can be found here in all of its forms such as the turquoise large main dome, the geometric mosaic of large wall surfaces, the multicolored ceramic to the frames of the arches and the ribs of the side domes; the delicate mosaic of countless interwoven by arabesques, elegant Thuluth font frieze on the cobalt blue and ornate gold faience on the drum under the great dome.

The interior of the dome rooms still shows traces of colored Al-secco painting and decorative elements made of paper mache, decorated with gold leaf and also blue – the latter an invention of that time. Also the some elements of the encrusted marble pedestal have been preserved.

Fate and current state

When Timur had returned from his military campaign in 1404 the mosque was almost completed. However Timur was not happy with the progress of construction, therefore he had immediately made various changes, especially concerning the main cupola.

From the beginning of the construction, problems of statistical regularity of the structure revealed themselves. Various reconstructions and reinforcements were undertaken in order to save the mosque. However, after few years the first bricks had begun to fall out of the huge dome over the mihrab. It forced
Timur to retaliate often beyond the structural rules. His builders were certainly aware of that, however he didn’t want to accept their opinion and reality.

Late 16th century the Abdullah Khan II (Abdollah Khan Ozbeg) (1533/4-1598), who was the last Shaybanid Dynasty Khan of
Bukhara, from 1583 until his death, had cancelled all restoration works in Bibi Khonym Mosque. [8] After that, the mosque came down and became a ruins gnawing at the wind, weather and earthquakes. The inner arch of the portal construction was collapsed in 1897. During the centuries the ruins were plundered by the inhabitants of Samarkand in search of building material especially the brick of masonry galleries along with the marble columns.

In the 20th century the ruins of the Mosque Bibi Khanym still impressed those visiting the city with its huge dimensions and still recognizable precious refinements. A first basic investigation and securing the ruins was made in Soviet times. Late 20-th century the Uzbek government began with the restoration of three dome buildings and the Main portal. The decoration of domes and facades was extensively restored and supplemented. Work on the mosque restoration last up till now.


It is unclear when the name Bibi Khanym Mosque arose. In the Middle Ages the Mosque only as great mosque or Friday mosque was mentioned.

Historically, Bibi Khanym (خانم بیبی, Persian: Madam Bibi) has not been used as the name of a wife of Timur. In Persian Bibi is also more of a general honorific name with the meaning of highly respected woman, particularly as respectful form of address for the paternal grandmother.

But Bibi Khanym Mosque has a nexus to Timur’s principal wife Sarai-Molk Khanym. While Timur was years in his military campaigns, his wife (was already an elderly lady) was most probably overseeing the work on the mosque, the most important new development of capital. What is certain is that under the
aegis of Sarai-Molk Khanym directly opposite the mosque Bibi Khanym one in the same time a madrasah had been built. [12] Only one dome structure of former madrasah has remained today, which has been mistakenly handed down by fame as the mausoleum of Bibi Khanym.


Central Asia is one of the 10 best places travellers should visit now.

A visit to Central Asia is a trip back in time, according to Rahman.

“This area is steeped in antiquity, with a lasting legacy from ancient warriors and emperors,” she says.

“Some of the oldest cities in the world are found here such as the legendary Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva, each one boasting a glorious architectural legacy.”

The most popular destinations in this patchwork of countries include Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, both rich in historic sites. Be aware that facilities tend towards the simple end of the scale. Further afield lie the wild mountain landscapes of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan, where the capital city, Astana, is filled with hyper-modern architecture.

NEED TO KNOW Both men and women should dress conservatively. Shaking hands is only acceptable between men.

INSIDER TIP Border crossings can be lengthy and challenging; travelling with an experienced operator can make this easier.

Caravanserais of Bukhara

Since ancient times the centres of economic life of cities in the East were inns as well as caravanserais in the middle ages not only bazaars. In fact, bazaars were closely related to the small crafts and retail trade. And wholesale trade would almost entirely be concentrated in caravanserais. Through both of those sale of goods brought via caravan routes would be conducted. What they represented always intrigued the more inquisitive minds of humankind.

Every spring large caravans would depart from Bukhara on a long journey. They went once a year in three main routes, one to Orenburg, the second to Troitsk and the third to Krasnovodsk, and in each of these caravans up to 50 bays would participate accompanied by yatims.
Each caravan would carry a cannon and armed people to guard the caravan. In the head of each caravan was a caravan-bosh elected by the bays. There were three of them: Bukhara. Shafirkan and Kazakh.
In each caravan several hundreds of loaded camels would go. On an assigned date and time they gathered at Samarkand gates on the road as then headed towards Shafirkan where at the house of one of the bays there was a meeting point and beasts of burden waited.
From Karshi, Khisor, Shahrisabz and other locations of the khanate small caravans consisting of 10-15 camels would also make way to Bukhara. They would head for the city, to the municipal serais where they put the natural tax they brought with them – millet, barley, etc.

Artistic Crafts of Uzbekistan

Ancient traditions of carpet weaving, embroidery, dying of fabrics, jewelry art and chase, plaiting from willow rods, carving and painting on the wood were developing and improving for centuries. In the result the unique art schools had appeared, where each of the craft centers was developing its originality. Rishtan ceramics, Urgut embroidery, Bukhara golden sewing, Margilan satin, Karakalpak and Khorezm jewelry, Chust scull-caps, Pap encrusted knives, Tashkent fettling are widely known.


Tashkent is a city on border of agricultural oases of Central Asia and boundless Eurasian steppes. It exists already more than two thousand years. In an extreme antiquity when this city still was known as Chach, it was not very large and on history value considerably conceded to more southern neighbors – to Samarkand and Bukhara. But archeologists today confidently identify in territory of modern capital of Republic of Uzbekistan some significant archeological objects, that are ancestors of Tashkent. And the kept monuments of ancient architecture have venerable age. Thus, well-known underground chilla-khana at Zain ad-din bobo mausoleum is constructed in XII century. But a great amount of ancient monuments of Tashkent which can be seen today, concern to XVI century when Tashkent became capital of one of the big state appendages of Sheibanid and ruled by authoritative branch of this dynasty.

Morning Palov
Ceremony of the morning palov is held during the wedding (“sunnat-tuyi” or marriage ceremony) and commemoration ceremonies ( 20 days and 1 year after the date of death). Organizers of the wedding appoint the date and time of the morning palov, having agreed preliminarily with the mahalla community or quarter’s committee. Invitations for this day are sent to relatives, neighbors and friends. In the evening, one day before the event the ‘sabzi tugrar” ceremony (slicing the carrot)is held which is usually visited by neighbors and close relatives. After the ceremony all participants are invited to the table. Usually, performers are also invited to the “sabzi tugrar” ceremony. At the table during the feasting elders distribute the duties among the present. Morning palov should be ready by the end of the morning prayer – “bomdod namozi”, because the participants of such prayer should be the first guests. By the end of the morning prayer the sounds of karnay, sunray and tambourine announce the start of the morning palov serving ceremony.
Guests take seats around the tables and after reading the fotiha (wishes) flat bread and tea are served. Just then the palov in lagans (large plates) are served – one for two. After the feast the lagans are removed, and guests again make a fotiha, and having thanked the host, they leave. Upon their departure the tables are fixed quickly for reception of new guests. Morning palov ceremony usually lasts for one and half – two hours. During this time the invited performers sing songs. At the end of morning palov the honorable guests are given gifts – usually these are chapans (traditional men’s robes). Commemoration palov differs from the celebration one by that the guests having taken the seats read the suras from the Qur’an and commemorate the passed away person. The feasting is finished also by reading suras from the Qur’an. Performers are not invited to the commemoration ceremony, and tables are fixed more moderately comparing with celebration. One should note the specific feature that the celebration and commemoration palov ceremonies are served only by men.

The camel breathes more slowly than the other mammals; its body temperature is higher and perspires later but when this happens the moistened hair turns into a sort of an isolator and does not let the organism to overheat. In the cool of the night it, on the contrary, preserves the warmth. In the winter period its hump, neck, shoulders and head covers in hair the length of which at times reaches the tip of its tail; it falls by summer. Its wool is turned into wonderful manufacture which in softness can be compared to silk. The camel does not lose much liquid. Its kidneys secrete highly concentrated urine which has a pleasant smell of eaten plants. In old times, maybe even now, people used it for washing the hair. Maybe because of this and the use of black and red henna the local beautiful women can be proud of their gorgeous, shining thick mane of hair.